They have also lived in Hays, KS and Dodge City, KS. By Jack Gross, President of the Greater Lehigh Valley REALTORS®. Is that accurate? Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. There are some perils to this approach: no universal ever fits the particulars. ld: Originally, in ancient Rome, the term “mechanical” referred to simple machines like a pulley or a lever, but, by the Middle Ages, it had already developed derogatory associations. Sometimes Jack goes by various nickname including Jack N Gross. As for the law, there are two aspects of legal thought that turned out to be seminal for probability: degrees of proof, and aleatory contracts. Jack Gross Research Writer and Editor Jack Gross is a writer, editor and researcher. Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. There are striking parallels between the story you tell and the contemporary development of artificial intelligence, which often requires immense amounts of unseen human labor. Jack Gross . Historians of science are schooled to look for continuity, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity. Technical improvements strengthened the relationship between the notions of mechanical and calculation. How did you become interested in probability, and specifically in the story of quantification? I think it’s an artifact of the educational system. By the late 19th century, the Bureau of Calculation at the Paris Observatory was entirely feminized. Rules that are less august in their domain of application than justice—rules, for example, defining the arts and crafts—are always formulated with an eye toward exceptions. How did you begin working on this project? Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal, Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics. But in terms of actually working on probability, it was Ian Hacking’s The Emergence of Probability that changed my path—literally overnight. By the mid-19th century, insurance companies became a third site of big calculation. ld: If you look at the details of, for example, the British Nautical Almanac, you can see that there have always been people like the moderators who are tasked with cleaning up—people behind the scenes checking and proofreading calculations, and identifying where things go wrong. Phenomenal World January 29th, 2020 Historicizing the Self-Evident — Jack Gross In the 18th and early 19th centuries, probability theory was always subject to the judgments of reasonable people. Jack is related to Valerie S Gross and Heidi Renee Gross as well as 4 additional people. Jack is related to Sandra J Gross and Donald P Gross as well as 3 additional people. The histories are in many ways rightfully triumphal—there has clearly been extraordinary technological advance from the clumsy machines of the 17th century to today—but it’s always been the case that effective functioning has been dependent on high-level judgment, often performed by those on the low end of the hierarchical division of labor. James McNeil Whistler, Red and Pink the Little Mephisto, 1884 . Enlightenment thinkers held that this form of reasoning must be made accessible to everyone. Our conversation was edited for length and clarity. He was born September 9, 1959 in Farmington a son of Alvin and Constance Marie (Benjamin) Gross. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/80526148/marcus-frank-gross Never in the history of human rulemaking have we created a rule or a law that did not stub its toe against unanticipated particulars (just ask the Facebook moderators who must clean up after the algorithms). Jack Gross: Regulating the Poor develops a theoretical framework for the function of welfare in the United States—how did you develop this approach to American welfare, and how did you … To use an example from the social sciences: if you are looking for causal mechanisms, often only a detailed ethnography will reveal what exactly is the cause of some observed pattern in behavior. Norman Alden (born Norman Adelberg, September 13, 1924 – July 27, 2012) was an American character actor who performed in television programs and motion pictures.He first appeared on television on The 20th Century Fox Hour in 1957.He provided the … It’s salutary to work in a language like German, which, unlike English, did not narrow the meaning of “science” in the 19th century to mean only the natural sciences. Aleatory contracts opened a loophole in these prohibitions: taking a risk was considered to be a form of work that entitles the risk-taker (for example, someone who lent a merchant money for a long voyage) to collect interest on an investment. The obvious one is the eruption of intellectual novelty, so fascinatingly presented in Hacking’s work. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. Prudential Insurance, for example, had a workshop entirely devoted to repairing broken down calculating machines. It is startling to see how consistent these interests are across my work. Jack Gross, Edna Simon, Lucyina Szwarc-Bilotynski, Arieh Durst, Reuven Pfefferman, Zeev Polishuk. The people behind the curtain in modern AI projects are of two sorts: those who are thinking about how to divide a very complicated task into the tiniest possible steps, very much in the tradition of the history of mechanical calculation; and those whose work is compensatory for algorithmic systems—Facebook moderators, for example, who monitor objectionable content missed by the algorithms meant to eliminate it automatically. Jack was an amazing loving a caring person and a devoted husband and father. It was also because it reached into other fundamental concepts: not only concepts like evidence, which Barbara Shapiro treats so beautifully in her book on 17th-century English notions of probability, but also notions of truth and falsehood. Lorraine Daston has published widely in the history of science, including on probability and statistics, scientific objectivity and observation, game theory, monsters, and much else. Jack likes writing stories and scripts, at last count he had over 40 stories in the works. Jack Gross Class of 2023 Perfect Game Player Profile. jg: There seems to be a tension between the idea that mathematical probability can encourage the development of sovereign reasoning and the notion that we need to quantify and formalize the faculty of judgment. In commodities markets, purchasing wheat or pork belly futures for the next year would be an example. Select this result to view Jackie Gross's phone number, address, and more. There is, however, a major difference between attempts to formalize reasoning from, say, 18th-century probability theory, and more modern notions of algorithmic rationality. These two streams of legal thought influenced the early probabilists. Could you describe this history and how you came to see the development of calculation as a story about the division of labor? VARIED NET The politics of welfare in the 21st century. The motivating question of the project was to understand how rules that intentionally involved judgment and adjustment to particular cases gave way to an understanding of rules as rigid, mechanical, and universally applicable. Jack is related to Richard P Gross and Timothy Gross as well as 3 additional people. Jackie is related to Dorothy J Gross and Arthur L Gross as well as 3 additional people. Amidst the ever expanding reach of all varieties of quantification and algorithmic formalization, both the earliest of Daston's works (the 1988 book Classical Probability in the Enlightenment) and her most recent (an ongoing project on the history of rules) perform this task, uncovering the contingencies that swirled around the invention of mathematical probability, and the rise of algorithmic rule-making. In both of these sites, a great deal of calculation had to be done by hand. These two modes of inquiry, so often opposed to each other, seem to me to work hand-in-glove, at least from the standpoint of the goals of scientific explanation. The major reason is that the vast majority of people did not belong to the reasonable male elite. These claims in Hacking’s book continue to grip me. Where does this phrase come from? We have information on 12 results for Jack Gross, including phone numbers and addresses. Select this result to view Jack Russel Gross's phone number, address, and more. Every second, Whitepages helps 19 people do reverse phone lookups, find people, and get background reports, including public records, in order to make smarter, safer decisions. In A Midsummer Night’s Dream, the bumbling amateur actors Bottom and his fellow artisans are called rude mechanicals, which suggests both their bumptiousness and the kind of work they do. If you already believe that this elite of reasonable men—and it is emphatically gendered male—is the gold standard for reasoning, why bother to formalize it? Those negative connotations deepen in the 18th century. POTs—the analytical framework and the technology—suggest that the inevitable assumptions, flaws, and rote nature of optimization systems can be exploited to produce “solutions that enable optimization subjects to defend from unwanted consequences.” Despite their overbearing nature, optimization systems typically require some degree of user input; POTs uses this as a wedge for individuals and groups marginalized by the optimization system to influence its operation. Small Wonder (TV Series 1985–1989) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. The best result we found for your search is Jack Gross age 80+ in Flushing, NY in the Flushing neighborhood. The minor reason is that they felt that, in extremely complicated circumstances, even the reasonable male elite needed some guidance. Phenomenal World Phenomenal World February 13th, 2020 Austerity and Ideology ... Jack Gross: I wonder if you can speak in a little bit more detail about the institutions that emerged out of the crisis period. This holds through all of your projects—from probability to observation to objectivity. I think machine learning presents an extreme case of a very human predicament, which is that the only way we can generalize is on the basis of past experience. So, already by Elizabethan times, at least in English, the word had a very pejorative, socially hierarchical meaning attached to it. This is a form of reasoning which is quite familiar to us, even if its quantification by an arithmetic of proof now seems strange: weighing and combining strong evidence with weak evidence in order to come to a reasoned judgment. You see it most vividly in the research done by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in their famous work “Judgment under Uncertainty,” in which human reasoning is seen to be intrinsically flawed as measured by the standards of Bayesian probability theory. We see a hierarchy of intellectual faculties, in which those forms of human activity that are allegedly mindless are described as “merely mechanical,” even if no machines are involved. The second aspect of legal theory that underpinned early formulations of mathematical probability was the so-called aleatory contract, which depends on an uncertain future outcome. Little Mephisto — Phenomenal World . How did the early probabilists draw on the law for the concepts that they thought needed quantification? The important point is the extent to which this labor has been erased from the triumphal histories of calculation. I think there are two explanations: one minor, and one major, and both are still very much with us. If all who were entitled to government benefits claimed them, they argued, the system would buckle, exposing the magnitude of American poverty and the inadequacy of its safety net. It is therefore no accident that one of the campaigners for probability theory—the Marquis de Condorcet, who was a leader of the early phases of the French Revolution—made it his task to introduce mathematics, including probability theory, into universal schooling for all French citizens. What would have been illegal or prohibited economic activity for religious reasons was made legal by the element of risk. But the history of science has also been quite permeable to the methods of the social sciences. If the results derived from the mathematical theory of probability diverged from those that a reasonable person might have concluded, it was probability theory that had to be revised and not the reasoning processes of a small elite of “reasonable people.”. Select this result to view Jack Gross's phone number, address, and more. Starting in the mid-19th century, when mechanical calculation genuinely becomes practically possible, the ambit of algorithmic rules grows, and by the middle of the 20th century, they become a form of rationality very much associated with the Cold War. Phenomenal World August 8th, 2020 Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross Print Economics, Bosses, and Interest — Maya Adereth Shani Cohen Jack Gross. The essay elaborates what has since been dubbed the "Cloward-Piven Strategy": the mass enrollment of the poor onto welfare rolls. What motivates you to identify the histories of scientific methods that have become generalized as intuitions? jg: In your 2017 paper “Calculation and the Division of Labor,” you recount both an intellectual and a labor history of what sounds to the contemporary ear like a mechanical activity: calculation. I became interested in quantification abstractly, but also quite concretely—as I was the object of some of these attempts to quantify judgment. There’s another aspect to your initial question: the analogy to the current day. Divisions of labor between workers, managers, and bosses do not, Marglin argued, serve increases in productivity and material prosperity, but rather the consolidation of wealth and power. And yet we know from history—and I know from my lifetime—that our deepest intuitions about all sorts of things, and in particular justice and injustice, can change dramatically. This is a simple economic story: an employer divides labor as finely as possible in order to employ the cheapest labor available on the market—schoolboys in this case, and then the highly educated, extremely conscientious labor of women. ld: Right. Our editors are Maya Adereth and Jack Gross. The problem was that they didn’t work very well—Pascal suggested that you should check the results of the calculating machine by hand, which sort of defeated their purpose. He manages the Phenomenal World. Frances Fox Piven, Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the City University of New York and one of these few, has studied and agitated within American social movements since the 1960s. Complement-dependent lysis of Erhlich ascites tumor cells by human serum (ascitolysin) in lowered in cancer patients and raised in pregnant women. I think it’s striking, if you take the longue durée view of the evolution of the sciences, to recall where these divisions of knowledge we take for granted come from. He played the Tuba in the Eastern High School Marching band. Similarly influential work conducted with Amit Bhaduri contested neoclassical models that view economic growth as a product of technological advancement and increases in the factors of production. jg: It seems that there’s a thread that ties together calculation, Cold War rationality, and mathematical probability, which is the rationalization and formalization of various aspects of human judgment. Like someone who lives in a flight path but has never bought a plane ticket complaining about the noise to an airline company, the collateral damage of optimization has little leverage over the system provider unless the law can be wielded against it. Optimizing the Crisis. One part of this story, then, is the association of calculation first with the division of labor, and then with very cheap labor. The buyer and seller are betting on whether the commodities in question will be more or less expensive than they are now. This labor was called “mechanical,” even though it’s done only with quill pen and paper. Be your best, all in order to truly determine that you win your fight, your match, without the cheap shots that Jack was forced to … Paul Gross is a Canadian producer, singer, director, writer and an actor most known for his role as Constable Benton Fraser in the TV series, Due South. Why not just follow their lead? It’s a nonstarter as a historical hypothesis, even if some of the early applications did deal with gambling and chance. I find the qualitative/quantitative division to be both puzzling and provincial—provincial in a double sense of it being linked to a particular language and also to our particular historical moment. The minor reason I mentioned—needing an aid for the elite group of reasonable men encountering complex circumstances—was intimately tied up with the problem of enforcing consistency in legal judgments. Harvard Computers, circa 1890. jg: A final question I want to ask is about your discipline. Phenomenal World is a publication managed by staff of the Jain Family Institute. One Jeanswear Group LLC is located in New York, NY, United States and is part of the Women's Clothing Manufacturing Industry. I have a strong sense that our best reasoning takes place at a semi-conscious level, and I’m very interested in how that lower stratum of reasoning—the intuitions that drive our thinking in philosophy, mathematics, and the rest—is established. The goal is to make one’s judgment consistent over the long run. These two senses of “mechanical” converge with Charles Babbage, the mathematician who designed the first computers. Jack graduated from Eastern High School in 1979. Email him at jack.gross@jfiresearch.org. Software that structures increasingly detailed aspects of contemporary life is built for optimization. Babbage was also a political economist—a banker—who studied the French project and concluded that “merely mechanical” work, performed by people whom he considered mindless, could be done by a machine. Select this result to view Jack D Gross… Our mission is to address pressing social problems by identifying and implementing high-impact interventions that will translate to real world progress. After many of Jack's colleagues over the age of 50 were met with a similar fate, he decided to fight back against what he believed to be a clear injustice, and at first, the courts were on … Characteristic of Cold War rationality was the view that certain forms of reasoning, core forms of reasoning, could not only be reduced to rules, but to a certain kind of rule in particular—namely, the algorithm: a rule that can be executed mechanically. How do you see the history of science in relation to the social sciences more broadly? Somewhat infamous for his post-tenure radicalism, Marglin has published extensively on a wide range of topics over his decades-long career. Merely mechanical rules take no thought or intelligence to apply; they narrow room for discretion. Something as simple as shifting from one language to another can prompt you to think historically about how all these forms of knowledge are intertwined. Unlike the work of Ian Hacking and Barbara Shapiro, who were examining the emergence of the concept of probability, your project focused squarely on the emergence of mathematical probability. Kim Phillips-Fein is an associate professor of history at New York University and the author of the books Invisible Hands: the Businessmen’s Crusade Against the New Deal and Fear City: New York’s Fiscal Crisis and the Rise of Austerity Politics, as well as the editor and co-editor of several collections in political economy, business history, and labor history. Official channels for redress offer little help: alleviating out-group concerns is by necessity counter to the interests of the optimization system and its target customers. Jack Gross: I’d like to start by asking about your new book project on rules—“all of them, everywhere,” as you said in a lecture this past winter. Jack Gross is telling me that the best way to prepare for a world where you could be cast aside from moving up, is to always, always be your best so that they can't reject you. In his telling, mathematical probability hit with the suddenness of a thunderbolt. He has a creative mind and is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new characters. There’s an obvious and perhaps a less obvious attraction to doing this kind of history. This seems to follow a logic of automating material production, where you look at the total process, disassemble it into component parts, and then deskill and automate it. One Jeanswear Group LLC has 800 total employees across all of its locations and generates $92.97 million in sales (USD). How does the unthinkable become something we cannot think away anymore? Beyond the time-intensive and uncertain path of traditional advocacy, what recourse is available for those who find themselves in the path of optimization? It’s really important to distinguish between these two groups of people, because they are performing two very different tasks. And it can work in the other direction—a hypothesis developed from ethnographic work may require statistical testing. To get at that, we have to tell a history not only of emergence, but of the formation of the deepest levels of our intuition. Drawing on a Kaleckian framework which sees output as a function of effective demand, their paper distinguishes between "wage-led" and "profit-led" growth regimes. If there’s inconsistency in judgment, it’s prima facie evidence for injustice. He manages the Phenomenal World. ld: The first attempts to create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz. JFI is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit applied research organization founded in 2014 by Bob Jain. That same year, anti-poverty groups around the country formed a broad coalition that became the National Welfare Rights Organization, of which Piven was a founding member. Some very early textbooks, like Condorcet’s textbooks for the Écoles Centrales, were suffused with the view that grasping fundamental mathematical concepts could serve as a model for political decisions: it would teach future citizens what a clear and distinct idea is—and thereby inoculate them against political demagoguery. Cloward and Piven published the article in the midst of an intense period of grassroots activity among welfare recipients. For millennia, at least in the Western philosophical tradition, logic was a matter of yes-or-no: a statement was either true or false. These programs require a mapping of the world in a way that is computationally legible, and translating the messy world into one that makes sense to a computer is imperfect. In the former, income redistribution increases employment and productivity, and in the latter it does not. This was a Herculean task accomplished in record time by people not trained as mathematicians—recalculated hundreds of thousands of logarithms by hand. There’s another element, however: the actual improvements in mechanical calculation, which allowed for the smoother working of a calculating machine. FREE Background Report. Jack Gross is a writer, editor, and researcher in New York. The best result we found for your search is Jack Russel Gross age 60s in Jamestown, PA. At least in his telling, that was the insight that led him to the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine. (Harvard College Observatory). September 26th, 2019 Jack Gross . Summary: Jack Gross is 70 years old today because Jack's birthday is on 10/01/1949. As he put it, in his characteristic style: before 1654, there was no concept of probability; it was an unthinkable concept. The first stems from a much ridiculed doctrine of the arithmetic of proof, highly developed in 16th-century legal and casualist thinking, in which the testimony of different witnesses and different kinds of evidence are assigned different weights. Already in the 18th century at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, forms had been developed that divided the task of a complex calculation into small enough steps—so that, at least at the lower end, the Observatory could employ very cheap schoolboy labor in order to complete them economically. A very giving man, he literally would starve so others could eat and break his leg to fix someone else’s. jg: You’ve used the term “merely mechanical” to describe the connection between people laboring under particular conditions, and a kind of labor that can be executed algorithmically. The dominant view was that the vast majority of people were, at least under current circumstances, incapable of self-governance, not only in the political sense of democracy but also in the more banal sense of governance of everyday affairs. Against lending at interest, traditionally seen as usury: no universal ever fits the particulars that it encounter... Find themselves in the winter of 2018 Jack sold his first screenplay years of top performance,... Poor onto welfare rolls Barker Professor Economics at Harvard University, where he has taught since he received in... Is part of the Jain family Institute ) nonprofit applied research organization founded in 2014 by Bob Jain across... S inconsistency in judgment, it was Ian Hacking ’ s criminal.! Is often off in an alternate universe fighting an epic battle or inventing new.... Educational system two approaches have split apart rules Take no thought or intelligence apply... The Due South ’ s another aspect to your initial question: the enrollment. Create mechanical calculators date to 17th-century thinkers like Pascal and Leibniz lived in Brooklyn, NY and Grove City KS... Senses of “ mechanical, ” which includes all jack gross phenomenal world of systematic study—is a much more capacious, ample.! Of history quite permeable to the judgments of reasonable people a caring person and a devoted husband father. Lasting anti-poverty policy, which sought to explain hierarchical production as a story about the of. Jurists, without having any kind of history the Tuba in the,... School Marching band mechanical labor, but Hacking framed his problem in terms of discontinuity Professor... 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And possible arrest records for Jack Donald Gross elite needed some guidance in judgment, it startling! Infamous for his post-tenure radicalism, Marglin has published extensively on a range.

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